Research 1: Analyze of Solubility Equilibrium

Data Treatment and Analysis

Section 1: Solubility Product Regular

Heat (˚C)| Volume of NaOH applied (mL)| |

| Titration 1| Titration 2| Average

28| 12. 7| 12. 8| 12. 75

9| 10. 5| twelve. 5| 10. 5

19| 11. 3| 11. 2| 11. 25

40| 18. 2| 16. 2| of sixteen. 2

50| 22. 8| 22. 9| 22. 85

Table 1: The volume of NaOH found in the titration at several temperatures. No . of moles of KHC4H4O6 = 1 . 45 g ÷ one-hundred and eighty-eight. 177g/mol = 7. 71 x 10-3mol Molarity of KHC4H4O6 before filtration sama dengan 7. 71 x 10-3mol ÷ 0. 1L sama dengan 7. 7 x 10-2M No . of moles of NaOH: (0. 07415M back button 12. 75) /1000L sama dengan 9. 454 x 10-4 mol ∴ No . of moles of HC4H4O6- sama dengan No . of moles K+ = 9. 454 x 10-4 mol [HC4H4O6-] sama dengan [K+] = (9. 454 x 10-4 mol) as well as 0. 025L = 0. 03785 mol/L Ksp = [K+][HC4H4O6-] = (0. 03785 ÷ 1mol/L) times (0. 03785 ÷ one particular mol/L) = 1 . 433 x 10-3 1/T sama dengan 1/(28+273. 15) = several. 6 x 10-3

ln Ksp sama dengan ln (1. 433 times 10-3 )= -6. 548

1/Temperature(1/K) (10-3 )| ln Ksp

several. 3 | -6. 548

3. a few | -6. 92

several. 4 | -6. 801

3. two | -6. 07

a few. 1| -5. 384

Stand 2: The inverse of numerous temperatures plus the ln for respective Ksp.

Graph 1: Graph of ln Ksp against 1/T

Graph you is a chart of ln Ksp against 1/T. It is a linear chart with a R2- value of 0. 916 which is near 1 and a standard error of regression of 0. 2103 which can be relatively close to zero, proving the fact that the type of the graph chosen works and the in shape of the trendline is good.. The negative lean shows that the ln Ksp is inversely proportional to 1/T. The gradient and intercept from your graph is employed to calculate the enthalpy and entropy change of the reaction. As demonstrated inside the calculations below the change in enthalpy is -31. 62 kJ (negative) as well as the change in entropy is 51. 5kJ (positive). Therefore the response is natural and the Gibb's free energy is less than zero, driving the reaction for the right until sense of balance is accomplished (Appendix) RT ln Ksp = = Δ L - Big t Δ T

y = -3. 803+6. 2053

∴ Δ H = -3. 803 x 8. 314J/mol. K = -31. 62x 103 J= -31. 62kJ

Uncertainty of enthalpy sama dengan 0. 6649×8. 314J/mol. T = zero. 5528J x 103= ± 0. 5528 kJ Δ S sama dengan 6. 2053 x 8. 314J/mol. T = 51. 59J back button 103 =51. 59kJ

Doubt of entrophy = installment payments on your 1962 ×8. 314J/mol. T = 18. 26 x 103 J= ±18. dua puluh enam kJ Lean: -3. 803 ± 0. 65kJ

Intercept: 6. 205 ± 2 . 20 kJ (One predicted standard change error limit. Number of measurements: 5)

Section 2: Prevalent ion effect

KNO3 K+ + NO3- KHC4H4O6 K+ + HC4H4O6- No . of moles of NaOH: (0. 04474mol/L by 18. 75L)/1000 = almost eight. 388 back button 10-4 mol ∴ Number of moles of K+ and HC4H4O6- = almost 8. 388 by 10-4 mol

Molarity of HC4H4O6- = eight. 388 by 10-4 mol ÷0. 025 L = 0. 0335 mol/L

Molarity of Ktotal: (8. 388 x 10-4 mol ÷ 0. 025L) + zero. 01mol/L sama dengan 0. 0436mol/L

Ksp = [K+][HC4H4O6-] = (0. 0335mol/L ÷ 1mol/L) back button (0. 00335mol/L ÷ 1mol/L) = 1 . 13 by 10-3 Solubility of KHC4H4O6: 8. 388 x 10-4 mol ÷ 0. 1L = eight. 344 x 10-3 mol

Chart 2: Graph of solubility of potassium hydrogen tartrate against the total concentration of potassium ions. Graph two which is a graph of the solubility of potassium hydrogen tartrate against the total concentration of potassium ions. It is a geradlinig graph which has a R2- benefit of 0. 917 which is close to 1 and a typical error of regression of 0. 353727 which is near zero, demonstrating that the type of the chart chosen is suitable and the match of the trendline is good.. The gradient which is -1. 0652 shows that the solubility of potassium hydrogen tartrate can be inversely proportionate to the total concentration of potassium ions. This is determined by the explanation over about the regular ion result where the embrace potassium ions shifts the equilibrium left, decreasing the solubility of potassium hydrogen tartrate appropriately. Results and Discussion

Section 1: Solubility Product Constant

Temperature(˚C)| Concentration of HC4 H4 O 6th - ( mol/L) (10-2M)| Concentration of K+ ( mol/L) 10-2M)| Ksp of KHC4H4O6 | 28| 3. 785|...

References: Chemical dymanics (n. d). Retrieved 3rd February, 2012 from

http://www.shodor.org/unchem/advanced/thermo/#enthalphy

Laird, Brian. N (2009), School Chemistry. Acid-Base Equilibria and Solubility, pp. 611-663. Ny. McGraw-Hill.

Ranken, Meters. D., Destroy, R. C. and Baker, C. M. C. (1997), Food Sectors Manual (Rev. ed. ). Alcoholic Beverages, pp. 236-272. The united kingdom. Chapman & Hall.