UW-L Journal of Undergrad Research XIV (2011)
You Make My Heart Beat Faster: A Quantitative Analyze of the
Relationship Between Trainer Immediacy, Class Community, and Public Speaking Panic
Faculty Expert: Linda Dickmeyer, Department of Communication Research
A large percentage of the population contains a severe stress when it comes to public speaking. However , the present research demonstrates there are techniques both trainer factors and classroom elements can be improved to make an individual less stressed about public speaking scenarios. This study attempts to understand the consequence of classroom community and trainer nonverbal immediacy on formal presentations anxiety. The researcher selected 191 participants using Likert-scale type concerns. These scales included the Personal Report of Public Speaking Anxiety (PRPSA), (McCroskey, 1970), Rovai (2002) Class room Community Range (CCS), as well as the Nonverbal Immediacy Scale вЂ“ Observer Report (NIS-O) (Richmond, McCroskey, & Johnson, 2003). Results says as teacher non-verbal immediacy increases, class community increases; as class community increases, public speaking anxiousness decreases. Further more studies will be needed to expand on the effects of external environmental factors on public speaking panic.
Glossophobia, or speaking in public anxiety, is among the most prevalent world worries, affecting approximately 75% with the population. Statistically, more people claim a fear of speaking in public than a anxiety about death (Glossophobia, 2001). Consequently , it is important to understand how public speaking anxiety affects many of the world's future frontrunners, today's students. It is obvious that public speaking anxiety can negatively influence students' academics and sociable relationships due to a tendency to withdraw by communication situations (Edwards & Walker, 2007). This considerably limits future employment choices, where public speaking is necessary in meetings, workshops, and other circumstances. Therefore , it really is valuable to find a further understanding of public speaking anxiety in order to understand what helps/hinders peoples' capacity to speak perfectly in public conditions. Although there is a huge large amount of research devoted to speaking in public anxiety, much of it simply looks at the manifestations of it or the meanings behind it. The current examine, however , intends to look at the consequence of outside affects on the level of anxiety. Many persons suffering from forms of communication apprehension, such as public speaking anxiety, report a anxiety about negative analysis from other folks (Kant, 2000). The awareness of the target audience affects the level of anxiety therefore profoundly that it must be important to check out what kind of relationship the speakers possess with the target audience as a whole. This is done through looking at the group of the particular situation, for example a classroom within the university setting. The current study will be examining this setting due to the substantial quantity of speaking in public done in this case. It is also an ideal place to do study speaking in public anxiety just because a deeper comprehension of public speaking anxiousness on the college or university level can easily have results that carry through the rest of the students' lives.
The role in the instructor is also important in setting the tone of any class and the development of classroom community. As located by Chesebro and McCroskey (2001), Ellis (1995), and Frymier (1993), instructor immediacy, both mental and non-verbal, is seen as using a soothing and mitigating impact on student classroom communication stress. Therefore , is actually critical to formulate a comprehension of the interplay between class community and public speaking anxiousness through an knowledge of instructor immediacy, or behaviors that " enhance nearness to and nonverbal connection with anotherвЂќ (Andersen, 1979, p. 103). The current examine will emphasis specifically about non-verbal immediacy,...
References: Andersen, J. F. (1979). Tutor immediacy being a predictor training effectiveness. In D. Nimmo (Ed. ),
Communication Yearbook 3 (pp
UW-L Diary of Undergraduate Research XIV (2011)
Behnke, R. 3rd there’s r., & Carlile, L. T. (1971). Heart rate as an index of conversation anxiety. Conversation Monographs, 35, 65-69.
Bourhis, J., & Allen, Meters. (1992). Meta-analysis of the romantic relationship between communication apprehension and
Bourhis, J., Allen, M., & Bauman, I. (2006). Communication tension: Issues to consider in the classroom. In
Bruffee, K. A. (1993). Collaborative learning: Higher education, interdependence, and the authority expertise.
Chesebro, J. L., & McCroskey, M. C. (2001). The relationship of teacher quality and immediacy with scholar state
receiver apprehension, have an effect on, and cognitive learning
Clark, D. Meters. (1968). A cognitive method to panic. Behavioral Research Therapy, 24, 461-470.
Clements, E., & Turpin, G. (1996). Physiological associated with public speaking evaluated using a way of measuring palmar
Clevenger, Big t. (1959). A synthesis of experimental analysis in level fright. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 45, 134145.
Cresswell, J. W. (2003). Exploration design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed strategies
Dede, C. (1996). The development of range education: Appearing technologies and distributed learning. American
Log of Range Education, 10(2), 4-36.
Edwards, C., & Walker, S. (2007). Employing public speaking learning communities to minimize communication
Ellis, E. (1995). Pressure, self-perceived proficiency, and instructor immediacy in the laboratory-supported
speaking in public course: Styles and interactions
Frymier, A. B. (1993). The interactions among communication apprehension, immediacy and motivation to study.
Glossophobia (2001). Suffering from glossophobia? Retrieved April 15, 2010, from
Hanna, Meters. S. (1978). Speech connection training requires in the business community. Central Says Speech
Record, 29, 163-172.
Hsu, C-F. (2009). The relationships of trait stress, audience non-verbal feedback, and attributions to public
speaking state anxiety
Kant, M. (2000). Speaking in public anxiety [Brochure]. Matn, TN: University of Tennessee at Martin Counseling
McCroskey, T. C. (1970). Measures of communication-bound anxiousness. Speech Monographs, 37, 269-277.
McCroskey, T. L., Richmond, V G., & McCroskey, J. C. (2002). The scholarship of teaching and learning:
Contributions in the discipline of communication
McCroskey, J. C., & Richmond, V. P. (1992). Elevating teacher affect through immediacy. In Sixth is v. P. Richmond
McCroskey, L. C., Richmond, V. P., & McCroskey, L. D. (2006). The role of communication in instruction: The first
McCroskey, L. C., Richmond, V. L., & Stewart, R. A. (1986). One on one: The footings of interpersonal
McCullough, S. C., Russell, H. G., Behnke, R. Ur., Sawyer, C. R., & Witt, G. L. (2006). Anticipatory public speaking
state stress as a function of human body sensations and state of mind
Mehrabian, A. (1971). Silent messages. Belmont, FLORIDA: Wadsworth.
Norton, G. Ur., Norton, P. J., Asmundson, G. J., Thompson, L. A., & Larsen, Deb. K. (1999). Neurotic butterflies in the
belly: The role of anxiety, panic sensitivity and depression in functional gastrointestinal disorders
Reinard, J. (2001). Introduction to conversation research (3rd ed. ). New York: The
McGraw-Hill Businesses, Inc.
UW-L Journal of Undergraduate Study XIV (2011)
Richmond, Sixth is v
Royal, Meters. A., & Rossi, R. J. (1996). Individual-level correlates with sense of community: findings by workplace
Rovai, A. P. (2002). Impression of community, perceived cognitive learning, and persistence in asynchronous learning
Schroeder, L. M. (2002). The consequence of skills teaching on connection satisfaction and communication panic in
the basic speech course
Scott, Meters. D., & Wheeless, M. R. (1977). The relationship of three types of interaction apprehension to
Watt, J. H., & Van living area Berg, S. A. (1995). Research options for Communication Science. Boston: Allyn and Sausage.
Winters, J. J., Horvath, N. L., Moss, M., Yarhouse, K., Sawyer, C. R., & Behnke, L. R. (2007). Affect depth of
student speakers being a predictor of anticipatory formal presentations anxiety
Witt, P. T., & Behnke, R. L. (2006). Anticipatory speech panic as a function of speaking in public assignment type.
Zhang, Q. (2005). Tutor immediacy and classroom interaction apprehension: A cross-cultural analysis.